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Controlled magnets

These pages are concerned with static magnets – i.e. those that emit a magnetic field of their own, as opposed to electromagnets which require electricity to produce a field.

EMF, RF, Microwaves

Some work with radio and microwaves is controlled (subject to safety control measures) and you will need to follow our procedures when using these in order to keep yourself and those around you safe.

Ionising radiation

Three types of sources of ionising radiation are used at the university: open sources, sealed sources, and x-rays.


All our laser equipment falls into two categories: uncontrolled (not requiring specific control measures) and controlled (requiring specific control measures).

Ultraviolet radiation

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength between 100nm (nanometers) and 400nm. This is less than the wavelength of visible light, so you cannot see UV radiation.